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Deciduous forest dominated by European Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), minor fraction of interspersed deciduous and coniferous tree species. Ground vegetation: Anemone nemorosa L., Mercurialis perennis L.

55.89156° N
11.968832 ° E (tower coordinates)
40 m asl (tower)

Site description

The Sorø beech forest site represents the natural forest vegetation of the northern temperate climate zone margin in Denmark and Southern Sweden. It is assumed that this site was forest since re-establishment of European beech after glaciations some thousand years ago. The current beech trees were planted in 1921 and are 30 m high. The site is flat and drained to avoid wetness in lower parts. The 2 m deep sandy loam is still base rich and has a 40 cm deep organic layer, resulting in high fertility and water availability. The maritime climate is mild (8.3 ±0,6 °C) but not as wet as at the west coast of Denmark (long-term average 730 mm y-1). The site is under intensive investigation since 1996 (EU-EUROFLUX project) and contributed since then to a large number of national and EU projects and to the global flux tower network FLUXNET. It is equipped with a 57 m high mast and a 25 m high canopy access scaffold and mains power access. During recent years the Sorø site developed from a greenhouse gas flux station to a full ecosystem investigation site, i.e. including long-term investigations of water and element cycling, canopy structure and plant and soil process studies. The Sorø forest site is an European infrastructure.




Sandy loam with a 20 cm deep organic layer.


Continuous measurements with 30 minute resolution:

Measured quantityLocation
Physical properties of the air 
relative humidity2 above the canopy
air temperature5 above and within the canopy
Air motion horizontal5 above the canopy
Air motion 3D (3D sonic anemometer)43 m
Physical properties of the soil 
Soil temperature2
Soil water content15 location (-10cm to -5 cm) and 2 locations (-200 cm, -120 cm, - 60 cm, -30 cm)
incoming / outgoing Global radiationAbove canopy (57m)
diffuse and total shortwave radiationAbove canopy (57m)
incoming / outgoing PARAbove canopy (57m)
incoming / outgoing thermal radiationAbove canopy (57m)
net radiationAbove canopy (57m)
photosynthetic reflectance Index (PRI)Above canopy (57m)
phenological photosAbove canopy (57m)
UV-B radiationAbove canopy (57m)
PAR11 sensors below canopy and 3 in canopy
Air chemistry 
CO2 concentration5 in and sub canopy levels
O3 concentration5 in and sub canopy levels
NO NO2 concentration profile5 in and sub canopy levels
rain intensityAbove canopy (30 m)
rain occurrence (binary)Under canopy (1 m)
stem flowUnder canopy (5 trees)
Energy momentum and matter fluxes (ecosystem scale) 
turbulent vertical momentum flux and friction velocityabove canopy (43 m)
turbulent vertical sensible energy fluxabove canopy (43 m)
turbulent vertical H2O and latent energy fluxabove canopy (43 m)
turbulent vertical CO2 fluxabove canopy (43 m)
Water fluxes in trees 
sap flow (Granier)12
Energy and matter fluxes (soil surface) 
soil heat flux2
CO2 soil-atmosphere exchange4
O3 soil-atmosphere exchange4
NO soil-atmosphere exchange4
NO2 soil-atmosphere exchange4

Planned experiments within CARBO-Extreme

Sorø is a long-term observation site contributing to WP 3

Related projects




Andreas Ibrom

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