CARBO-Extreme makes use of ecosystem models from two general categories. Sectorial models (SUNDIAL, PASIM, BASFOR) simulate biogeochemical cycles and thus the state of a specific ecosystem type (cropland, grassland, forest). These models have a daily time step and have process representations that are specifically important for the respective ecosystem (e.g. the effect of tillage on productivity for croplands or the effect of selective logging on productivity for forests). In contrast, generic ecosystem models (JSBACH, ORCHIDEE, CLM, LPJmL) take into account a mixture of ecosystems within a larger grid cell, with different levels of complexity of interactions between these ecosystems. These models work as land-surface schemes of climate models and serve the atmospheric model with biogeochemical fluxes, surface albedo and roughness length, hence they usually resolve the diurnal cycle with typically half-hourly time step.
The table below is a first attempt to give information about the models and their individual excellence. All information is preliminary, suggestions should go to the site administrator.
In addition, you can see flowcharts of how SUNDIAL, LPJmL, CLM3.5, or DGVMs in general work. Many parts of these descriptions are also true for the other models, but not necessarily.
|Name||Acronym||Reference (more here)||Purposes||Features/Processes||Contact|
|SimUlation of Nitrogen Dynamics In Arable Land||SUNDIAL||Smith et al., 1996||cropland management||carbon-nitrogen cycles, management practicies and its change, anaerobic processes||Jo Smith, Pete Smith (University of Aberdeen)|
|Pasture Simulation Model||PASIM||Riedo et al. (1998); Vuichard et al. (2007)||Grassland ecosystem response to environmental change and feedbacks to the atmosphere||Coupled soil-vegetation-herbivore-atmosphere model. Carbon, nitrogen and water cycles. Herbage productivity and quality, ruminant production (meat and milk), soil C sequestration, N2O and CH4 (enteric fermentation) emissions||Jean-François Soussana & Gianni Bellocchi (INRA, Clermont-Ferrand)|
|The BASic FORest model||BASFOR||Van Oijen et al. 2005||wood productivity in response to forest management, climate, air pollution and atmospheric CO2 concentration||vegetation structure, age, N2O, Nox||Marcel van Oijen (CEH, Edinburgh)|
|Jena Scheme of Biosphere-Atmosphere Coupling in Hamburg||JSBACH||Raddatz et al., 2007||Land-surface scheme, climate-ecosystem interactions, role of terrestrial ecosystems within the Earth System||diurnal cycle, new phenology||Christian Reick (MPI Meteorology), Christian Beer (MPI Biogeochemistry)|
|ORganizing Carbon and Hydrology in Dynamic EcosystEms||ORCHIDEE||Krinner et al., 2005||Land-surface scheme, climate-ecosystem interactions, role of terrestrial ecosystems within the Earth System||crop dynamics and fluxes, dynamic vegetation, competition, vegetation structure, diurnal cycle||Philippe Peylin (LSCE/CEA)|
|Community Land Model v3.5||CLM3.5||Oleson et al., 2004||Land-surface scheme, climate-ecosystem interactions, role of terrestrial ecosystems within the Earth System||sunlit and shaded leaves, diurnal cycle||Sam Levis (NCAR, Boulder), Paulo Oliveira (ETH, Zürich)|
|Lund-Potsdam-Jena Dynamic Global Vegetation Model, managed lands||LPJmL||Bondeau et al., 2007||Response of ecosystem functioning to environmental change||crop dynamics and fluxes, dynamic vegetation, competition, vegetation structure||Alberte Bondeau, Anja Rammig (PIK, Potsdam)|
Comparison of generic models
The following table aims at comparing the most important features of the generic models. For example, LPJmL is the only model that runs with a daily temporal resolution but represents various crop PFTs with explicit crop phenology and represents a full competition. ORCHIDEE is the only land-surface scheme of a climate model that has a dynamic vegetation representation and it also represents forest stand structure and forest management. JSBACH has a logistic phenology model, and CLM represents carbon-nitrogen interactions.
|Allometry, veg structure|| ||dynamic||prescribed||dynamic|
|Dynamic Vegetaion|| ||competition for water|| ||full competition|
|Fire|| ||Thonicke01|| ||Thonicke01|
|Phenology||logistic||interpolation from min to max||prescribed||interpolation from min to max|
|Canopy representation||3 layers, 2-stream-approximation||big leaf||2-stream-approximation for sunlit and shaded leaves||big leaf|
|allocation=f(environment)|| ||X|| ||X|
|crops||1 PFT||2 PFTs||1 PFT||n PFTs, crop phenology|
|subgridcell representation||distinct||distinct||distinct||homoeneous mixed PFTs|
|soil hydrology||1 bucket||11 bucktes||10 buckets||2 buckets|
|typical time step||30 min||30 min||30 min||1 day|
|possible driving time step||1 day||1 day||1 day||1 day|
|trace gases||CO2, H2O||CO2, H2O||CO2, H2O||CO2, H2O|
|C reserve||1 pool||1 pool||1 pool|| |
|Carbon-Nitrogen interaction|| || ||X|| |
|forest management|| ||thinning, clearcut|| || |
|age structure, cohorts|| ||diameter distribution|| || |